Beyond the Geography Core Requirements, students choose a minimum of 12 credit hours from Human or Regional Geography. Geographic information science (GIS), often referred to as geographic information systems, uses a computer program to assimilate and manage many layers of map data, which then provide specific information about a given place. The urban core areas are home to industry and service centers. The twenty-four times zones are based on the prime meridian in regard to Universal Coordinated Time (UTC), Greenwich Mean Time (GMT), or Zulu Time (Z), which all operate on the twenty-four-hour time clock. Determine the basic geographic realms and their locations. The state of Kentucky can be used as a comparison guide for understanding other formal political regions around the world. The Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) It tends to emphasize the main physical parts of the earth—the lithosphere (surface layer), the atmosphere (air), the hydrosphere (water), and the biosphere (living organisms)—and the relationships between these parts. Over the last two decades, GIS has revolutionized the field of cartography: nearly all cartography is now done with the assistance of GIS software. While geographic features can serve as convenient formal borders, political disputes will often flare up in adjacent areas, particularly if valuable natural or cultural resources are found within the geographic features. These images can serve as important components in the cartographic (map-making) process. Absolute location, on the other hand, refers to an exact point on the earth’s surface without regard to how that point is related to any other place. Physical landscape is the term used to describe the natural terrain at any one place on the planet. When the function of an area ends, the functional region ends and its boundaries cease to exist. Outline the political structure of North Korea. At the equator, the sun is directly overhead at noon on the two equinoxes, which occur in March and September. Geography also examines the relationships between and the processes of humans and their physical and cultural environments. Types of geographic studies regional geography systematic/thematic geography. Photo by R. Berglee – CC BY-NC-SA. They use computer programs to take raw data to develop the information these organizations need for making vital decisions. Additionally, he created one of the first maps of the world based on the available knowledge of the time. f. Students will be able to read and interpret information on different types of maps. 0 Tag’s. Political Maps. For example, a functional region can be defined by a newspaper service or delivery area. Each individual might have a different idea about the location of the boundaries of the South or the Midwest. It is the farthest location south that receives sunlight during the winter season in the Southern Hemisphere (90 S − 23.5 = 66.5 S). Each time zone is 15 degrees wide. STUDY. Regional geography is a field of study which strongly contrasts with systematic geography. Summarize the physical geography of the Korean peninsula. Finally, we will identify the different types of international cooperations since … PLAY. Human geographers examine the spatial distribution of human populations, religions, languages, ethnicities, political systems, economics, urban dynamics, and other components of human activity. How does the cultural landscape assist in indicating the differences between a wealthy neighborhood and a poverty-stricken neighborhood? The tilt of the earth’s axis at 23.5 degrees helps create the earth’s seasonal transitions by either absorbing or reflecting the sun’s energy. In addition, the notion of a city-region approach to the study of geography, underlining urban-rural interactions, gained credence since the mid-1980s. China, for example, is as large in land area as the United States yet operates on only one time zone for the entire country. World Regional Geography: People, Places and Globalization. The cultural landscape is the term used to describe those parts of the earth’s surface that have been altered or created by humans. AREA: REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY. For example, all air flights use the twenty-four-hour time system so the pilots can coordinate flights across time zones and around the world. If it is 1 p.m. in New York, it is 10 a.m. in San Francisco, which is three times zones to the west. The eastern standard time zone is five hours earlier than the time at the prime meridian (UTC) because it is about 75 degrees west of 0 degrees (5 × 15 = 75). A formal region known for its high economic status and its ideal of justice. Geography is a much broader field than many people realize. B. movement A region that is administered by the United States government is an example of a __________ region. This is true also near the Antarctic Circle, but it occurs south of the Antarctic Circle, toward the South Pole. Anthropology (3225) Anthropology of Cities (9) Anthropology of Religion (52) Applied Anthropology (56) Archaeology (152) Cultural Anthropology (1864) Ethnography (80) Evolution and Human Origin (897) Often, many universities today offer specific regional geography courses which give an overview of the broad topic and others may offer courses related to specific world regions such as Europe, Asia, and the Middle East, or smaller scale such as "The Geography of California." Kentucky includes part of the rural peripheral region of Appalachia, but the state also has cosmopolitan core urban centers such as Lexington and Louisville. For example, the urban cultural landscape of a city may include buildings, streets, signs, parking lots, or vehicles, while the rural cultural landscape may include fields, orchards, fences, barns, or farmsteads. Can you list a formal region, a functional region, and a vernacular region that would include where you live? Press Release Global Reusable Respirators Market 2020 Growth Factors, Types and Application by Regional Geography 2024 Published: March 20, 2020 at 7:17 a.m. The first known use of the word geography was by Eratosthenes of Cyrene (modern-day Libya in North Africa), an early Greek scholar who lived between 276 and 194 BCE. The United States. What are their lives like? A Neolithic mummy of a man who died in 3300 BCE caused tension between Italy and Switzerland: the body was originally taken to Innsbruck, Switzerland, but when it was determined that the body was found about 90 meters (180 feet) inside the border of Italy, Italian officials laid claim to the body. This area does not experience dramatic seasonal changes because the amount of direct sunlight received does not vary widely. The limit of a vernacular area is more a matter of perception than of any formally agreed-upon criteria. He devised one of the first systems of longitude and latitude and calculated the earth’s circumference. A grid system called the graticule divides the earth by lines of latitude and longitude that allow for the identification of absolute location on the earth’s surface through geometric coordinates measured in degrees. Three main types of boundaries define a region: formal, functional, and vernacular. Chapter 2 REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY 1. Categories . In the United States, the boundaries between the different time zones are inconsistent with the lines of longitude; in some cases, time zones zigzag to follow state lines or to keep cities within a single time zone. A region is the basic unit of study in geography. GIS, GPS, and remote sensing are tools that geographers use to study the spatial nature of physical and human landscapes. For example, between the United States and Mexico, the Rio Grande makes up a portion of the border. 0 examples. [2] The regional geography paradigm has influenced many other geographical sciences, including economic geography and geomorphology. The Northern Hemisphere experiences winter when sunlight is reflected off the earth’s surface and less of the sun’s energy is absorbed because of a sharper angle from the sun. Rooted in the tradition of the German-speaking countries, the two pillars of regional geography are the idiographic study of Länder or spatial individuals (specific places, countries, continents) and the typological study of Landschaften or spatial types (landscapes such as coastal regions, mountain regions, border regions, etc.). ELEMENT OF REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY CHAPTER 2 2. The Cultural-region is the term used in cultural geography; environmental geography uses ecoregion and bioregion in biogeography. How can remote sensing technology assist in determining what people do for a living? Regions are cohesive areas within each realm. Traditionally, the field of cartography, or map making, has been a vital discipline for geographers. Regions are traditionally defined by internal characteristics that provide a sense of place. The non-English portion is in Hungarian because of the European participants in the race. An official boundary, such as the boundary of a national park, can be considered a formal boundary. Lines of latitude and longitude allow any absolute location on the earth to have an identifiable address of degrees north or south and east or west, which allows geographers to accurately locate, measure, and study spatial activity. If it is 4 p.m. in San Francisco, what time is it in London, England? The US state of Kentucky is one example that can be used to compare formal political regions. GIS specialists often create and analyze geographical information for government agencies or private businesses. Natural physical geographic features have a huge influence on where political boundaries of formal regions are set. In physical geography, zoogeography, ecology, environmental geography, and biogeography regions are based on numerous natural features like mountain ranges, national regions, bi… 5 Careers in Geography Geographer. Distinguish between the different types of regional distinctions recognized in geography. School districts, cities, and county governments have formal boundaries. Geography is the spatial study of the earth’s surface (from the Greek geo, which means “Earth,” and graphein, which means “to write”). Human geography is the study of human activity and its relationship to the earth’s surface. Functional regions have boundaries related to a practical function within a given area. One needs to be super conscious to avoid this trap. Which of the five themes of geography would a person most likely use to study the importation of Chinese goods into the United States? In comparing one formal political region with another, it is often helpful to use a familiar country, state, province, or political unit as a reference or guide. Physical factors of significance can include location, climate type, and terrain. A heavily populated, functional region well-known for its Downtown area where supply is high and demand is low. a. Strong criticism was leveled against it in particular during the 1950s and the quantitative revolution. [3], Regional geography was once used as a basis for the geomorphological works such as those of David Linton and Henri Baulig. The line of direct sunlight always hits the earth between 23.5 degrees north (Tropic of Cancer) and 23.5 degrees south (Tropic of Capricorn), depending on the time of year. The equator divides the earth into the Northern and Southern Hemispheres and is called 0 degrees latitude. Figure 1.1 Low Elevation Air Photo of Cultural Landscape in Morehead, Kentucky. Nevertheless, most people would recognize the general area being discussed when using one of the vernacular terms in a conversation. Identifying a state’s geographical attributes provides readers both in and outside the United States with a comparison indicator for geographic purposes. Notice that all lines of latitude are parallel to the equator (they are often called parallels) and that the North Pole equals 90 degrees N and the South Pole equals 90 degrees S. Noted parallels include both the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn, which are 23.5 degrees from the equator. The actual International Date Line does not follow the 180-degree meridian exactly. Then we will analyze the geography of post-WWI Europe, Southwest Asia (aka, the Middle East), and the League of Nations. A geographer is a person who studies geography - particularly the earth’s environment and human society. Regional Geography Essay Examples. The Tropic of Capricorn is the parallel at 23.5 degrees south of the equator and is the most southerly location on Earth, receiving direct sunlight during the Southern Hemisphere’s summer. The earth rotates on its axis once every twenty-four hours at the rate of 15 degrees per hour (15 × 24 = 360). Press Release Global Communicable Diseases Therapeutics Market 2020 Growth Factors, Types and Application by Regional Geography 2026 Published: June 15, 2020 at 4:17 a.m. Human Geography in general and Regional Planning in particular can easily play its tricks in the examination. Again, this textbook takes a regional approach with a focus on themes that illustrate the globalization process, which in turn helps us better understand our global community. Europe is the second-smallest continent.Only Oceania has less landmass. If the newspaper goes bankrupt, the functional region no longer exists. Kentucky ranks close to the middle range of the fifty US states in terms of its population of 4.3 million people. Apart from the global … The designations of a.m. and p.m. are relative to the central meridian: a.m. refers to ante meridiem, or “before noon,” and p.m. refers to post meridiem, or “after noon.” UT, UTC, GMT, and Z all refer to the same twenty-four-hour time system that assists in unifying a common time in regard to global operations. Figure 1.6 Graphic of the Four Seasons                   Photo by R. Berglee – CC BY-NC-SA. The line is the longest when you travel along in an east-west direction. This approach prevailed during the second half of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century, a period when then regional geography paradigm was central within the geographical sciences. These technologies provide the means to examine and analyze changes on the earth’s surface caused by natural or human forces. The Antarctic Circle is the corresponding line of latitude at 66.5 degrees south. It focuses solely … This specific region has a lot of grass, is flat, and is home to animals like bison and antelope. Oil drilling near the coast of a sovereign country, for example, can cause a dispute between countries about which one has dominion over the oil resources. Environmental geography requires an understanding of both physical and human geography, as well as an understanding of how humans conceptualize their environment and the physical landscape. Geographic regions and sub-regions are mostly described by their imprecisely defined, and sometimes transitory boundaries, except in human geography, where jurisdiction areas such as national borders are defined in law. Geography involves studies that are much broader than simply understanding the shape of the earth’s landforms. What occupations depend on knowledge of the seasons for their success? During winter, the North Pole is away from the sun and does not receive much sunlight. The exploitation of offshore fisheries can also be disputed. Physical geography is the spatial study of natural phenomena that make up the environment, such as rivers, mountains, landforms, weather, climate, soils, plants, and any other physical aspects of the earth’s surface. Also, in the United States, the terms Midwest or South have many variations. Regional geography is a unique field of geology which studies regions. The Arctic and Antarctic Circles mark the extremities (southern and northern, respectively) of the polar day (twenty-four-hour sunlit day) and the polar night (twenty-four-hour sunless night). Geography is the spatial study of the earth’s surface. Europe is sometimes described as a peninsula of peninsulas. GPS units are standard equipment for many transportation systems and have found their way into products such as cell phones, handheld computers, fish finders, and other mobile equipment. A region is a basic unit of study in geography—a unit of space characterized by a feature such as a common government, language, political situation, or landform. Physical regions can be included within formal boundaries, such as the Rocky Mountains or New England. The most common features in social science are ethnic, cultural, or linguistic (Provence), climatic or topographical (the Tennessee Valley), industrial or urban (the Ruhr), economic specialization (the Cotton Belt of North America), administrative units (standard government regions in Great Britain), and international political areas (the Middle East). The regions studied in world regional geography can be combined into larger portions called realms. Similarly, the AmazonRiver region in South America is charact… The discipline is divided into two types: physical geography that focuses on the nature of the earth and human geography that attempts to explain how human utilizes and manages space. Main critics were G. H. T. Kimble[1] and Fred K. World regional geography is the study of a particular group of world regions or realms as each compares with the rest of the world. Realms are large areas of the planet, usually with multiple regions, that share the same general geographic location. Additionally, analysis of various cultural and natural phenomena through the use of GIS software and specialized maps is an important part of urban planning and other social and physical sciences. The Arctic Circle is a line of latitude at 66.5 degrees north. Cartography is the art and science of making maps, which illustrate data in a spatial form and are invaluable in understanding what is going on at a given place at a given time. Whether the state of Kentucky belongs in the Midwest or in the South might be a matter of individual perception. Political geography: This branch of human geography studies and investigates the political aspects of humans. A problem with the 15-degree time zones is that the zones do not necessarily follow state, regional, or local boundaries. Regional geography is also a certain approach to geographical study, comparable to quantitative geography or critical geography. Other US states could also be used as examples. Factors for comparison include both the physical and the cultural landscape. During the Northern Hemisphere’s summer, the North Pole faces more toward the sun and may receive sunlight for longer portions of the twenty-four-hour day. The idea of regions is crucial and widely used by different branches of geography with each describing an area in regional terms. These two main areas are similar in that they both use a spatial perspective, and they both include the study of place and the comparison of one place with another. Cultural regions can be defined by similarities in human activities, traditions, or cultural attributes. GIS can integrate a number of maps into one to help analysts understand a place in relation to their own specific needs. This is the same time under which many military operations, international radio broadcasts, and air traffic control systems operate worldwide. Express how the concept of regional complementarity can apply to the Koreas. Relative location helps one compare the advantages of one location with those of another. Europes northernmost point is the Svalbard archipelago of Norway, and it reaches as far south as the islands of Greece and Malta. It is the farthest point north that receives sunlight during its winter season (90 N − 23.5 = 66.5 N). The state’s 40,409-square-mile physical area ranks it thirty-seventh in size in the United States. You walk and walk and walk, and then you're in the suburbs and you keep walking and walking and walking, and then you're in the countryside and you're still walking. Continental region, cultural region, milieu theory, natural region, nodal region, pays, region, regional atlas, regional identity, regional science, polarised space. For example- in the United States, there is a major physical region known as the Great Plains. From these lines, the systems of longitude and latitude are formed, allowing you to locate yourself anywhere on the planet. The continental United States has four main time zones (see Table 1.1 “Four Main Time Zones in the Continental United States and Their Central Meridians” and Figure 1.7 “Major Time Zones of the World”). Similarly, various regions of the United States have been referred to as the Rust Belt, Sun Belt, or Bible Belt without a clear definition of their boundaries. Google Earth is an excellent example of a computer tool that illustrates remotely sensed images of locations on the earth. An example of a common service area—that is, a functional region—is the region to which a local pizza shop will deliver. Then we will analyze the birth and diffusion of the Industrial Revolution within Europe. Making maps and verifying a location have become more exact with the development of the global positioning system (GPS). Regional Geography. While the economic and cultural aspects of humanity are primary focuses of human geography, these aspects cannot be understood without describing the landscape on which economic and cultural activities take place. It was later criticised for its descriptiveness and the lack of theory. Each day officially starts at 12:01 a.m., at the International Date Line. What methods, topics, or procedures would be helpful to include in the study of world geography? Figure 1.5 Road Sign South of Dakhla, Western Sahara (Claimed by Morocco), Marking the Tropic of Cancer. What do they do for a living? Geomorphology (the study of the earth’s surface features), Coastal geography (the study of the coastal regions), Climatology (the study of climates and climate change), Biogeography (the study of the geographic patterns of species distribution), Europe (Eastern Europe and Western Europe), The Russian Realm (Russian republic of the former Soviet Union), Middle America (Caribbean, Mexico, Central America), North Africa, the Middle East and central Asia, Subsaharan Africa (Africa south of the Sahara Desert), Eastern Asia (China, Mongolia, Japan, and the Koreas), Southeast Asia (mainland region and the islands region), Australia and the Pacific (including New Zealand). Cloud Monitoring Market Forecast Including Growth Factors, Types And Application By Regional Geography 2020 mangesh 1 second ago The research study of the global Cloud Monitoring market provides the market size information and market trends along with the factors and parameters impacting it in both the short and long term. The prime meridian is defined as an imaginary line that runs through the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England, a suburb of London. Church parishes, shopping malls, and business service areas are other examples of functional regions. As it rotates around the sun, the tilt of the earth’s axis provides different climatic seasons because of the variations in the angle of direct sunlight on the planet. Students interested in a career in geography would be well served to learn geospatial techniques and gain skills and experience in GIS and remote sensing, as they are the areas within geography where employment opportunities have grown the most over the past few decades. The scientific approach can focus on the distribution of cultural and natural phenomena within regions as delimited by various natural and cultural factors. Formal regions consist of geographic regions, cultural regions, governmental regions and economic regions. Schaefer. A formal region has a governmental, administrative, or political boundary and can have political as well as geographic boundaries that are not open to dispute or debate. Geographers also look at how the earth, its climate, and its landscapes are changing due to cultural intervention. How will you be able to tell if you cross the city line, or even the state line? For example, in business applications, GIS can be used to determine a favorable location for a retail store based on the analysis of spatial data layers such as population distribution, highway or street arrangements, and the locations of similar stores or competitive establishments. For example, if it is noon in London, then it is 7 a.m. in New York. For example, Introductory geography courses often break the world into climatic, political, cultural, or economic regions for the purpose of study. They function to serve a region and may have established boundaries for limits of the area to which they will provide service. The Eastern Hemisphere includes the continents of Europe, Asia, and Australia, while the Western Hemisphere includes North and South America. Their boundaries vary with the type of region, whether it is formal, functional, or vernacular; each type has its own meaning and defined purpose. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, "The major landforms of the bedrock of Sweden–with a view onthe relationships between physical geography and geology", Geographic data and information organizations,, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 5 December 2020, at 11:42. Equinoxes, when the line of direct sunlight hits the equator and days and nights are of equal length, occur in the spring and fall on or around March 20 or 21 and September 22 or 23. Use Google Earth to locate your current school or residence. It may be seen from this figure that all the three types of analysis, i.e., spatial, ecological, and complex regional have theoretical and applied aspects. The two primary lines are the equator and the prime meridian. Draw a map of your home state or province and include lines of latitude and longitude. North of the Arctic Circle, the sun is above the horizon for twenty-four continuous hours at least once per year and below the horizon for twenty-four continuous hours at least once per year. Compile the statistical data on your home state, province, or territory to use in comparing formal political regions. The International Date Line (180 degrees longitude) is opposite the prime meridian and indicates the start of each day (Monday, Tuesday, etc.). Geography has also gone from different changes from time to time means that we ... researchers in physical, economic, human and regional geography. Understand the focus of geography and the two main branches of the discipline. UTC is set in zero- to twenty-four-hour time periods, as opposed to two twelve-hour time periods (a.m. and p.m.). Learning Goal 2: Students will learn the regional geography of the world, particularly from the perspective of how human, physical and environmental components of the world interact. The focus is on the spatial relationships within any field of study, such as regional economics, resource management, regional planning, and landscape ecology. Put simply, regional geography is a branch of geography that studies the world’s regions. This involves a complex definition of regions and their interactions with other scales. A number of alterations have been made to the International Date Line to accommodate political agreements to include an island or country on one side of the line or another. Likewise, between Canada and the United States, a major part of the eastern border is along the Saint Lawrence Seaway and the Great Lakes. The result is that time zones are seldom exactly 15 degrees wide and usually have varied boundary lines. Figure 1.8 Diagram Illustrating the Width of a Time Zone. Universal Time (UT), Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), Greenwich Mean Time (GMT), or Zulu Time (Z): all four terms can be defined as local time at 0 degrees longitude, which is the prime meridian (location of Greenwich, England). How would GIS, GPS, or remote sensing technology be used to evaluate the destruction caused by a tornado in Oklahoma? GIS can also refer to techniques used to represent, analyze, and predict spatial relationships between different phenomena. Understand how North Korea and South Korea developed independently. Human factors include cultural traditions, ethnicity, language, religion, economics, and politics. Attention is paid to unique characteristics of a particular region such as natural elements, human elements, and regionalization which covers the techniques of delineating space into regions. The earth is tilted on its axis 23.5 degrees. Physical or land region is an area with geographic boundaries. This involves the boundaries of countries, the development strategies put in place and the voting patterns and behaviors within … Kentucky is not as large in physical area as the western states but is larger in physical area than many of the eastern states. Geographers and cartographers organize locations on the earth using a series of imaginary lines that encircle the globe. Vernacular regions have loosely defined boundaries based on people’s perceptions or thoughts. Most people think of area studies as the whole of geography. The GIS computer program can sort or analyze layers of data to illustrate a specific feature or activity. The natural forces of erosion, weather, tectonic plate action, and water have formed the earth’s physical features. Geography is the study of the earth's features and how human be… Remotely sensed images allow geographers to identify, understand, or explain a particular landscape or determine the land use of a place. The rural peripheral regions of the state are home to agriculture and mining. Describe how South Korea developed a high standard of living and a prosperous economy. Within these regions are all the major types of biomes in the world. For example, the rainfall regions, the variability of rainfall regions, the plants association regions, soil regions (black-earth region of India), etc., must be decided on as regional limits and all such limits are subject to change through time or by purpose of the regional geographer.
2020 types of regional geography